Rahul Banerjee

Rahul Banerjee

A cheat sheet for JavaScript's fetch API

A cheat sheet for JavaScript's fetch API

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Originally Posted on realpythonproject.com

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The fetch API in JavaScript is used to make requests. It can also be used to consume APIs. Let's take a look at some of the most common operations using fetch API.

I will be working in a NodeJs environment

Installing node-fetch

npm install node-fetch

Importing node-fetch

const fetch = require('node-fetch')

A simple GET Request

With Promises

Let's make a request to the JSON Placeholder

const fetch = require("node-fetch");
const url = "https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/todos/1";

fetch(url)
  .then((response) => response.json())
  .then((json) => console.log(json))
  .catch((err) => console.log(err));

With async/await

const fetch = require("node-fetch");

const getData = async (url) => {
  const res = await fetch(url);
  const json = await res.json();
  console.log(json);
};

const url = "https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/todos/1";
getData(url);

Passing Parameters

Add it to the URL

const getData = async (url) => {
  const res = await fetch(url);
  const json = await res.json();
  console.log(json);
};
const url = "https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/posts?userId=1";
getData(url);

Using URLSearchParams

const getData = async (url) => {
  const res = await fetch(url);
  const json = await res.json();
  console.log(json);
};
const params = {
  userId: 1,
};
const url =
  "https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/posts?" + new URLSearchParams(params);
getData(url);

Note there is a ? at the end of the url

When you have multiple parameters, it looks cleaner to create an object with your parameters and use URLSearchParams to add it as a parameter in the request

Passing a headers object

This is useful when the API you are consuming requires authentication. We will be working with the Cats as a Service API

Loading env variables stored in .env files

We will need to install 'dotenv' using npm

npm install dotenv

The below code snippet reads the environment variable

require("dotenv").config();
const CAT_API_KEY = process.env.API_KEY;

Let's try making a request to the API

const getData = async (url,headers) => {
  const res = await fetch(url,{
      headers: headers
  });
  const json = await res.json();
  console.log(json);
};
const url =
  "https://api.thecatapi.com/v1/breeds";
const headers = {
    "x-api-key": CAT_API_KEY,
  };
getData(url,headers);

We simply create an object when making the request and store the headers object inside it.

Handling Errors

Let's try to make a request to the Cat's API but to a non-existing endpoint.

const getData = async (url,headers) => {
try{
    const res = await fetch(url,{
        headers: headers
    });
    if (res.status !== 200){
        throw ('Failed to get data from API')
    }

}
catch (err){
    console.log(err)
}
};

We can put the fetch request inside a try...catch block and throw our custom error message.

Making a Post Request

const getData = async (url,data) => {
  const res = await fetch(url, {
    method: 'POST',
    body: data,
  });
  const json = await res.json();
  console.log(json);
};
const url = "https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/posts";
const data = JSON.stringify({
  title: "test Data",
  body: "this is a test post request",
  userId: 120,
});
getData(url, data);

The we use JSON.stringify() to convert our data(object) into a string.

Response Object

const getData = async (url) => {
  const res = await fetch(url);
  const text = await res.text()
  console.log(text); // A string with the JSON
  console.log(res.status) // 200
  console.log(res.ok) // true
  console.log(res.url) // https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/posts/1
  console.log(res.redirected) // false
};
const url = "https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/posts/1";
getData(url);

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